Ozymandias – Exam prep

Percy Shelley’s “Ozymandias”

I met a traveller from an antique land
Who said: Two vast and trunkless legs of stone
Stand in the desert… near them, on the sand,
Half sunk, a shattered visage lies, whose frown,
And wrinkled lip, and sneer of cold command,
Tell that its sculptor well those passions read
Which yet survive, stamped on these lifeless things,
The hand that mocked them and the heart that fed:

And on the pedestal these words appear:
‘My name is Ozymandias, king of kings:
Look on my works, ye Mighty, and despair!’
Nothing beside remains. Round the decay
Of that colossal wreck, boundless and bare
The lone and level sands stretch far away.

Question: How does Shelly convey the idea of Ozymandias’ hubris in the poem??

The poem, Ozymandias, written by Shelly, conveys an idea of ones self importance or hubris. In spite of what we may deceive ourselves to think. our power as human beings is transient, at best. Through the use of symbolism and imagery this idea of hubris is communicated. When the traveler is recounting his/her encounter with the Ozymandias statue in the desert the barren, bare landscape is used as an important symbol of isolation. The poem says “And on the pedestal these words appear: ‘My name is Ozymandias, king of kings:
Look on my works, ye Mighty, and despair!’” which emphasises the over importance Ozymandias holds of himself. He had power, he thinks he is powerful but surrounding him is nothing. The sand symbolises how his power, like many other people’s perception of their own power, could have been great, grand, and remarkable at the time but if our ambitions get the better of us and because we all eventually die, our power is lost, we’re left with nothing and no one. Another way this idea is communicated is through imagery. “Two vast and trunkless legs of stone Stand in the desert… ” is said at the beginning of the poem, implying that the Statue of Ozymadias is very large. The poem then goes on to talk about how the lonely landscape of nothingness surrounds it. This create a strong imagery of how Ozymadias’s statue stands so tall in the desert for no one to see because that’s how he saw his self. Big, extravagant, and far more important than anyone else. The barren sand represents his isolation due to his arrogance. Overall the poem explores this idea hubris and the symbolism and imagery add to this exploration.

Practice Paragraph Analysis

“Describe at least one idea that changed you perspective or point of view in the film” 

Mr Waugh’s example: As is common to all dystopias, the film Gattaca by Andrew Niccol deals with elements of our society that are discomforting and project these into a future where they are followed through to their natural conclusion. Genetic selection is the target for Niccol’s moral tale; and alongside his exploration of where our genetic technology might take us, he has also presented a number of visual motifs that direct our attention back to the early 20th century and its modernism and preoccupation with Eugenics. Arguably, nowhere is the idea that we are not defined by our genetic make-up more obvious than in the scenes in Vincent and Jerome’s house that revolve around their helix staircase. The two men are presented quite literally in relation to a representation of human DNA, forcing us to confront the ideas that Niccol most wants us to

Statements, evidence, explanation

My attempt: In the film Gattaca by Andrew Niccol, ideas or problems arising from society that bring up discomfort or controversy are portrayed in a futuristic display, enabling us to envision the possible outcomes if we as a human race don’t changed our morals for the better. Genetic selection is the theme or main idea that the story follows and through the use of directly referencing the commonly appearing helix staircase in Vincent and Eugene’s home, the idea of genetic selection is reenforced even more so to the audience. The two characters (Eugene + Vincent) are represented throughout the film as different strands of human DNA. Eugene is a perfect born – his DNA presents no flaws that could limit his any ambition. Vincent on the other hand is of god born and his DNA shows flaw after flaw. The staircase in their home could be seen as a replica of Vincent’s DNA, as in this scene Eugene devotes his everything to help Vincent achieve his goal by climbing up the staircase. Also, at the end of the scene after the inspector and Irene have left, Vincent is shown standing underneath the stairs looking up to hear them leave. This illustrates the limits to Vincent’s capabilities and portrays Eugene’s DNA as superior to Vincent’s. This again, addresses Andrews overall theme of genetic superiority, and through the use of the helix staircase the audience can further grasp this concept.


The 1997 film Gattaca by Andrew Niccol is set in a dystopia future where being anything less than genetically perfect causes you to be a disadvantaged in life. The film tells us that there are some things that genetics can’t determine. Arguably the most important of these is ambition. At the climax of the film, Jerome, who no longer has the use of his legs after an earlier suicide attempt, is shown dragging himself up a helix staircase to rescue the genetically ‘invalid’ character Vincent from being discovered by the authorities. Many point of view shots are used to reinforce Jerome’s struggle, which, because it’s literally with a helix, symbolises the destructive dominate of genetics in their society. This reinforces the view that apparently benign genetic selection practises could rob human society of the very forces that we value the most.

GATTACA scene 1.19.15

Shot 1 – CAR – long shot , high angle 
Diegetic: Electric car noise
Non-diegetic: Suspense/worrying music
Dialogue: None 
Shot 2 – VINCENT – mid shot, low angle
Diegetic: None
Non-diegetic: suspense/worrying music
Dialogue: Vincent – “Come on, come on, come on” 
Shot 3 – EUGENE – mid shot, level angle
Diegetic: Phone ringing
Non-diegetic: Suspense music… fades out as Jerome starts speaking
Dialogue: Eugene – “Hello”
Shot 4 – VINCENT mid shot, low angle
Diegetic: None
Non-diegetic: None
Dialogue: Vincent – “Eugene, I need you to be yourself for the day”

Shot 5 – EUGENE mid shot, level angle
Diegetic: Dialogue
Non-diegetic: None
Dialogue: Eugene – “I was never very good at it remember!”
Shot 6 – VINCENT mid shot, low angle
Diegetic: Dialogue
Non-diegetic: None
Dialogue: Vincent – “The investigators are coming by, I am supposed to be sick”
Shot 7 – EUGENE close up, level angle
Diegetic: Dialogue and Eugene putting down the phone
Non-diegetic: None
Dialogue: Eugene – “So you keep telling me. How long have I got?”
Vincent – “Not long”

  • Shot 7 – Eugene close up, level angle
  • Shot 8 – Vincent mid shot, low angle
  • Shot 9 – Wheel chair E long shot, low angle
  • Shot 10 –  mid shot, high angle
  • Shot 11 – long shot, level angle
  • Shot 12 – long shot, low angle 
  • Shot 13 – long shot, high angle
  • Shot 14 – long shot, birds eye view
  • Shot 15 –  Irene + Anton two shot, level angle
  • Shot 16 –  hand close up, level angle
  • Shot 17 – feet close up, level angle 
  • Shot 18 – Car long shot, level angle
  • Shot 19 – long shot, level angle
  • Shot 20 – Car long shot, level angle
  • Shot 21 – close up ,low angle
  • Shot 22 – Stairs close up, level angle
  • Shot 23 – long shot, level angle
  • Shot 24 – long shot,  
  • Shot 25 – long shot 
  • Shot 26 – long shot 
  • Shot 27 – Eyes long shot 
  • Shot 28 – two shot
  • Shot 29 – mid shot 
  • Shot 30 – two shot
  • Shot 31 – close up 
  • Shot 32 – two shot 
  • Shot 33 – close up 
  • Shot 34 – long shot 
  • Shot 35 – two shot 
  • Shot 36 – long shot 
  • Shot 37 – long/mid shot
  • Shot 38 – long shot 
  • Shot 39 – mid shot 
  • Shot 40 – mid shot 
  • Shot 41 – close up 
  • Shot 42 – mid shot 
  • Shot 43 – long shot 
  • Shot 44 – two shot 
  • Shot 45 – mid shot 
  • Shot 46 – two shot 
  • Shot 47 – long shot 
  • Shot 48 – close up 
  • Shot 49 – close up 
  • Shot 50 – close up 
  • Shot 51 – close up 
  • Shot 52 – mid shot 
  • Shot 53 – close up 


Monologue – MISS SKEETER


The help

  • Coming up with the idea to write the book
  • Nightmares
  • When her mother tells her the story about continuing and she realises that their all stuck in a web they can’t escape, and they don’t even realise their stuck in it.
  • Miss Skeeters upbringing, like a reflection after her mum tells her Constintine’s story


I was raised in this house. From the moment mother brought me back from the hospital, Constantine was there. Her face was the first i remember smiling with. She would hold ever so gentilly. Like i was made of glass. I remember smiling up at her kind brown eyes. I could see the world behind those eyes. Years of wisdom, joy. And now I know equally years of horror and betrayal.


Never the less she was my angel. Seeing her walk through the door in the mornings with her white uniform, white stockings, and white shoes, and her chocolate skin. Her coloured skin fasinated me as a child. I went through a stage of wanting to have brown skin too. It was different…special. and … well.. I wanted to be special like Contintine.


She was my hero. She was always there. She taught me how to ride a bike, make pancakes, brush my teeth, braid my hair…. But most importantly she taught me to be kind. She knew what it was like out there. More than anyone. How cruel the world can be. How cruel white people can be. She knew what i was bound to become, like every other white girl becomes. clones of their mothers.


Our help would raise us, nurtur us and love us. Then when we were old enough we would hire help of our own and forget. Forget all the things OUR help had done for us when we were younger. We would turn into wiches. Ritch snobby witches who only cared about their bridge club meetings, and keeping the husband happy. Like Miss Hilly. Oh god she would kill me for saying that. But surely we’re all entitled to say anything with some truth behind it. MISS HILLY.


I won’t forget. How can I forget. Costintine was my mother over my mother. Does that make scence. No. Contintine was my mother in my eyes. While my real mother would sit and read the paper or drive down the street to the hair salon, Constintine would be up sitting next to me up my tree house looking out for sneeky pirrots, or sitting next to me upstairs on a rainy day reading my favourite stories. She was patient…. And honest…. She always told me the truth…. That way I knew i could always trust her.


oh , i remeber this thing she used to do with her hand, pressing her thumb into my palm. it was our little sign, a sign that told me what she had to say was IMPORTANT…. I wish she could be here now…. I know she would be proud…. I hope she would be proud… sometimes if i just close my eyes i can picture her sitting beside me…. I wish someone anyone could press their thumb into my palm now, assure me that i am doing the right thing….

she left… she just left… no goodbye hug, wave, not even a letter to explain…. For years i couldn’t understand it… blamed her… blamed myself…. But now i have my mother to blame…. No actually i have every white citizen of the united states of america to blame…They took her away from me…. They left her with no other choice…. They drove her out of town with no job, no home, no money, no hope….and…. they … well… they killed her….. They broke her heart and killed her…. There’s no explanation for that…. No reasoning that can make any part of it right…. What they don’t understand is it doesn’t just affect the coloured it affects all of us…. Whether we like it or not we are all part of this cruel cycle…. You just have to walk down the street to see it…. Whites only church, whites only libary, whites only toilets, whites only buses, whites only shops, whites only schools….. What does it all mean…. When will they realise this is all wrong….


I can’t do this anymore. I’ve spend my whole life thinking the world of Costintine, she was my friend, my family, my hope, my angel. When i was  about 15 my mother looked me in the eye and said the only duty I owe to god is to be a good wife, have children, and keep my husband happy… nothing else mattered… In her eyes, and in everyone else’s eyes that was the guideline to a successful life. It was measured in the husbands happiness and money. Hahaha.  When i told her i was going back to school to be a writer… she cried… she stood there in front of my 19 year old self and… and she told me how ashamed she was to be my mother…. Lord, Hilly had already a husband… she was pretty, well mannered.. She just fitted in….. “Why can’t you just fit in Skeeter” she used to say…. When I was 12 we had our first school dance at school. No one had asked me to go with them. I was tessed everyday after it. Skeeters ugly, Skeeters too tall, Skeeters too loud, Skeeters different, no boy will ever love skeeter. That day, Contintine found me after school crying under my favorite tree in the our backyard. I told her what had happened and made her promise not to tell mother. I was so scared of her reaction. Contintine said nothing for a while just held my hand. There’s power in silence, I think. When she was ready she said that I WAS different, but that it wasn’t a burden it was a gift… i was going to do some special with the life I’d been given.. I was going to make a difference, because i was brave, and smart, and kind. I’ve never forgotton those words… BRAVE, SMART, KIND. They were the exact words i needed to hear. With them in mind, i packed my bags and left home the next morning walked straight pass my mother and smiled…. I knew in my heart I had more in me than being a house wife…. And Contintinw told me anyway that men are strange creatures, if we think about finding the right man for too long we wind up with the wrong one or in some cases many wrong ones, but if we follow our hearts and does what makes us happy the right one will appear… and he will love you, for just being you, not trying to be anyone else. I’ll make you proud contintine, promise i’ll make you proud.


“The Help”


CHARACTER STUDY: Eugenia ‘Skeeter’ Phelan

  • A 22 year-old wealthy white woman
  • lives + grew up on a cotton farm/plantation
  • After school she went to study at Ole’ Miss (University of Mississippi)
  • She is very tall, lanky, and not very pretty – much to her mothers disaproval
  • She wants to be a writer – her mum wants her to be a wife
  • When she comes back from school she realises that her views on black + white segregation have changed. She becomes intrigued on the ‘helps’ views on what it’s like to serve for a white house hold every day, and be the inferior colour.
  • This idea is extremely dangerous but skeeter is determined and string willed!

Page: 89

Reading the letter from Harper & Row:

“Miss Phelan

You certainly may hone your writing skills on such flat, passionless subjects as drunk driving and illiteracy. I’d hoped, you’d choose topics that actually had some punch to them. Keep looking. If you find something original, only then may you write me again.”

Upset that Missus Stein’s letter was so negative. feeling discouraged because i have no better ideas

Pick up copy of ‘let us now praise famous men’ wondering if I’ll ever write anything that worth while or that holds such an impact.

My maid Pascagoula knocks on the door – THAT’S WHEN THE IDEA COMES

“no. I couldn’t. That would be… crossing the line.”



MACBETH – Act 5 Summary

Scene 1

Characters: Doctor, Gentlewoman, Lady Macbeth

Location: At night in king Macbeth’s castle

Events: The doctor and gentlewoman watch-on and discuss LadyMacbeth’s strange sleepwalking habits. They are both very concerned for her as it is clear she is going mad. She enters a trance and starts sorrowing over the deaths of her husband and herself. She keeps referring back to her hands, saying they will never be clean and rubs them hard trying to get the ‘blood’ she is imagining off them. Of course, the doctor and gentlewoman grow suspicious and wary of what she is saying but are more concerned about her health than anything else. She is slowing going mad and developing a mental illness as a result of the murders that have taken place.


“Out, damned spot! Out, I say!—One, two. Why, then, ’tis time to do ’t. Hell is murky!—”

(Lady Macbeth)

Lady Macbeth says this line while vigorously washing her hands. The murder of King Duncan and Banquo are starting to take their toll and are haunting her into a mental state. In this line, she is saying that she can’t and will never get the blood off her hands. She see’s spots of it all over her hands is trying to get it off but it won’t go away. This, of course, is just in Lady Macbeth’s head.

“Here’s the smell of the blood still. All the perfumes of Arabia will not sweeten this little hand. Oh, Oh, Oh!”

(Lady Macbeth)

She is saying that even the smell of blood haunts her. She says that not even all the perfumes of Arabia will get rid of the smell from her hands.

“To bed, to bed. There’s knocking at the gate. Come, come, come, come. Give me your hand. What’s done cannot be undone.—To bed, to bed, to bed!”

(Lady Macbeth)

She is reliving the moment when she and Macbeth killed King Duncan. The only difference is that in the scene when they actually did the murder she says ‘come to Macbeth clean your hands, once they are washed from this bloody witness it is as if we never did it’. But now she is saying give me your hand because want has been done can never be undone and we will forever be murderers.

Scene 2

Characters: Menteith, Angus, Caithness, Lennox

Location: Outside Macbeth’s castle

Events: A group of Scottish lords discusses the upcoming battle between England and Scottland. But really its a battle between England and Macbeth because they tell us that the Scottish army has agreed to meet the English troupes at Burnum wood to join forces and side against Macbeth.

Scene 3

Characters: Macbeth, Servant, Seyton, Doctor,

Location: Inside Macbeth’s castle

Events: Macbeth strides through the halls of his castle assuring himself and his servants that they must not fear the battle because of what the witches said (No man woman born could harm Macbeth and that he will not be defeated until Birnam wood moves to Dunsinane). The Doctor talks to Macbeth about Lady Macbeth’s health. And tells him that an illness like this can not be cured


“I have lived long enough. My way of life
Is fall’n into the sere, the yellow leaf,
And that which should accompany old age,
As honor, love, obedience, troops of friends,
I must not look to have, but, in their stead,
Curses, not loud but deep, mouth-honor, breath
Which the poor heart would fain deny and dare not.”
Macbeth is saying that his life is beginning to wither (like a plant drying up and falling away). Like a yellow leaf in Autumn. He says that things that should go along with old age like Love, honor, obedience, good friends, he can no longer have. Instead, he has cursed and is surrounded by people who honor him with their words and not their hearts. He says that his heart is tired of living like this and wishes his life was over. But he can’t let himself die so easily. 
Scene 4
Characters: Malcolm, Menteith, Siward, Soldiers, Macduff,
Location: Birnam wood
Events: Malcolm talks to fellow English lords about Macbeth’s decision to fight against them. Malcolm tells the soldiers to break off a branch off the trees in the wood (Birnam wood) and use it to disguise themselves so they can hide the numbers of their troupes until they battle.
Scene 5
Characters: Macbeth, Seyton, Messanger,
Location: Inside Macbeth’s castle
Events: Macbeth continues to order his servants around in preparation for the battle. A woman screams and Seyton reports to Macbeth that the Queen is dead; the scream was from Lady Macbeth. Shocked, Macbeth processes the news. A messenger arrives with news that it looks like Birnam wood is advancing to Dunsinane castle. Terrified that this is what the witches had told Macbeth he says that he would rather die fighting and prepares nervously for the battle.
“Tomorrow, and tomorrow, and tomorrow,
Creeps in this petty pace from day to day
To the last syllable of recorded time,
And all our yesterdays have lighted fools
The way to dusty death. Out, out, brief candle!
Life’s but a walking shadow, a poor player
That struts and frets his hour upon the stage
And then is heard no more. It is a tale
Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury,
Signifying nothing.”
Macbeth says this FAMOUS passage in reaction to hearing that Lady Macbeth is dead. He talks about the meaning of time and states that time is measured in words – meaning as the words run out (as we’re nearing the end of the play) time and life is running out too. He refers to pace/time as if it were creeping (personification) this indicates that time is like a slow motion/creeping preditor. This passage shows how Macbeth is mentally entering a state of despair, he is starting to doubt the importance of life and instead wonders what it must be like to die.
Scene 6
Characters: Malcolm, Siward, Macduff
Location: Outside Macbeth’s castle
Events: The battle begins and Malcolm orders his soldiers to throw down their branches and bring out their swords.
Scene 7
Characters: Macbeth, Young Siward, Siward, Malcolm
Location: On the batte field
Events: Macbeth kills every man he passes and holds on to the witches promise that no man woman born shall harm Macbeth. He even kills young siward, and continues fighting.
“Thou wast born of woman.
But swords I smile at, weapons laugh to scorn,
Brandished by man that’s of a woman born.”
Macbeth says that he smiles and laughs (he will not be afraid) of any type of weapon held by a man born of woman.
Scene 8
Characters: Macbeth, Macduff, Malcolm, Siward, Ross,
Location: On the battlefield
Events: Macbeth and Macduff finally find each other and fight. When Macbeth finally states that he has no fear for no man woman born can harm Macbeth, Macduff replies with the news that he was NOT woman born instead he was born of c-serian. Macbeth is shocked by this and comes to the conclusion that he is going to die tonight as all of the witches promises have come true. He decides that if he is going to die then he will die to fight. Macduff kills Macbeth and walks to the others holding only Macbeth’s head. Ross tells Siward that his son died. The rest of them celebrate that Macbeth is dead and no Malcolm will become king of Scottland.

Macbeth – Act 4 Summary

Scene 1

Characters: First Witch, Second Witch, Third Witch, Hecate, Macbeth

Location: A dark Carven

Events: The witches appear around a bubbling cauldron, chanting a spell as they drop ingredients into the cauldron🔮. Macbeth enters (just as the witches had predicted) and asks the witches the truth behind their previous prophecies. In response to this 3 apparitions appear with a different message for Macbeth. The first is a floating head with 20 gashes on its face – This warns Macbeth to beware of Macduff. To this Macbeth says ‘he is already’. The second is a bloody child – telling Macbeth that no person woman born could ever harm him. And the third is a crowned child holding a tree – telling Macbeth that he is safe until Birnam Wood moves to Dunsinane Hill. Macbeth is happy to hear all of this because it makes him feel superior and powerful. Finally, the witches create a line up of 8 kings. The last king holding a mirror, Banquo’s ghost appears and moves to the end of the line. Macbeth is angered by this 😡 and demands to know the meaning behind it. Instead, the witches dance around and finally vanish leaving Macbeth to wonder what that all meant.


“Macbeth! Macbeth! Macbeth! Beware Macduff.
Beware the thane of Fife. Dismiss me. Enough.”
(First Apparition)
The first apparition says this passage as a warning to Macbeth. The head is saying he must beware of Macduff. Macbeth’s response to this is simply thank you for your advice you have said exactly what I fear. So, in other words, he was already wary of Macduff.
“Be bloody, bold, and resolute. Laugh to scorn
The power of man, for none of woman born
Shall harm Macbeth.”
(2nd Apparition)
The second apparition reassures Macbeth that he is powerful beyond measure. This bloody child says that no man woman born shall harm Macbeth. Meaning that no human born of woman can stand up to Macbeth because he is too POWERFUL. I feel like this apparition really follows what the witches previously said about giving Macbeth to much security. If he thinks that no man woman born can harm him them he has no reason to fear Macduff or any other person who might be suspicious or dislike him.
“Be lion-mettled, proud, and take no care
Who chafes, who frets, or where conspirers are.
Macbeth shall never vanquished be until
Great Birnam Wood to high Dunsinane Hill
Shall come against him.”
(Third Apparition)
The third apparition tells Macbeth not to worry about who doesn’t like him, who fears him, or who is suspicious towards him because he will never be defeated until the woods move to a different hill.  We all know that trees don’t have legs and therefore can’t move so when Macbeth hears this news he is confident that he has A LOT of security.

Scene 2

Characters: Lady Macduff,  Ross, Son, Messenger, First Murderer

Location: Macduff’s castle

Events: Lady Macduff meets Ross and asks why her husband fled. She feels betrayed 😔. Ross says that she must trust her husband’s judgment and not worry about him leaving. Ross leaves (he knows that the murderer is about to come but doesn’t warn or help Lady Macduff or her son…… Interesting?!). Lady Macduff tells her son that his father is dead (she thought it was better to tell her son that Macduff has died rather than he had left and didn’t care about them anymore). Her son doesn’t believe her and says that he is not dead. A messenger hurries into the castle and warns Lady Macduff that something dangerous is coming her way and they must both flee as soon as possible. Lady Macduff argues and claims nothing bad could happen because she had done nothing wrong. but as she says that a murderer appears, he talks badly of Macduff and the son calls the murderer a lier! The murderer stabs the boy and he dies ☠. In shock, Lady Macduff runs out of the castle and the murderer chases after her.


“My father is not dead, for all your saying.” (son)

The son denying that his father is dead, saying that his mother is wrong!

Scene 3

Characters: Malcolm, Macduff, doctor, Ross,

Location: England; A room in the king’s palace.

Events: Malcolm and Macduff talk, and at first Malcolm isn’t sure he can trust Macduff, as he fled from Scottland and could have easily sided with Macbeth. Malcolm lyes and says he doesn’t think he is a fit king – to see what MacDuff’s reaction is. When he finally agree’s that Malcolm isn’t a fit king of Scottland, he has passed Malcolm’s loyalty test. The two become allies. Ross enters from Scottland and tells Macduff that his family is well (not wanting to break the news) and urges Malcolm that he must come back to Scottland and help save his country from Macbeth. Malcolm says that he will return but with ten thousand English soldiers lent to him by the king to help battle. Eventually, Ross breaks the news to Macduff that his wife and son had recently been killed. Macduff is grief-stricken by this, but Malcolm’s advice is to turn that grief into and anger and they both promise to fight against Macbeth and pay revenge.


“Alas, poor country!
Almost afraid to know itself. It cannot
Be called our mother, but our grave, where nothing,
But who knows nothing, is once seen to smile;
Where sighs and groans and shrieks that rend the air
Are made, not marked; where violent sorrow seems
A modern ecstasy. The dead man’s knell
Is there scarce asked for who, and good men’s lives
Expire before the flowers in their caps,
Dying or ere they sicken.”
Ross is saying that Scottland – their home country is not the place it used to be. It is no longer the beautiful place they were born but the horrifying place they will die in. He says that only the fools smile because they aren’t aware of the despair the country is in. He says that ‘good’ men die before they have even fallen sick. This is referring to the fact that there is no reason for all of these deaths anymore. No one can explain why it’s just happening. It’s also a reflection on Macbeth’s mind because there is no sane reasoning behind that anymore either.


Scene 1

Characters: Banquo, Macbeth, Lady Macbeth, Attendant, 1 murderer, 2 murderer

Location: A room in a palace in Forres

Events: Banquo states his suspicion for Macbeth killing the king because that was what the witches had said. Macbeth and Banquo have a conversation about the feast coming up, that Banquo promises to attend. Banquo tells Macbeth that he and his son are going riding tonight. Macbeth brings in two murderers once Banquo has gone and convinces


 “He chid the sisters
When first they put the name of king upon me
And bade them speak to him. Then, prophetlike,
They hailed him father to a line of kings.
Upon my head they placed a fruitless crown
And put a barren scepter in my grip,”
Macbeth is concerned that Banquo knows that he killed the King because is the only other person that heard the witches prophecy. He also says that ‘they put a fruitless crown’ on his head – meaning his children will not become king, he will have no legacy because the witches had said that Banquo’s children would be kings, not his. Macbeth thinks – what is the point of being king if it helps Banquo’s children!
“It is concluded. Banquo, thy soul’s flight,
If it find heaven, must find it out tonight.”
Macbeth says that the deal is set (that his plan to kill Banquo and his son is put in place) and that if Banquo is to go to heaven then he will go there tonight (meaning he WILL die tonight!).
Scene 2
Characters: Lady Macbeth, Servant, Macbeth
Location: In Macbeth’s Castle
Events: Lady Macbeth is losing hope and wonders if what they did was worth it. She sends a servant to get Macbeth. Macbeth assure’s Lady Macbeth that it will all work out in the end. And the reason they both feel uneasy about the deed is that is is not yet complete. Macbeth has planned to have two murderers kill Banquo and his son Fleance tonight. He thinks this will finish off the job because he needs to kill the proposed future kings so that he can have his OWN legacy. He doesn’t tell Lady Macbeth this, instead, he says ‘a deed of dreadful note’ is put in place.
“Oh, full of scorpions is my mind, dear wife!
Thou know’st that Banquo, and his Fleance, lives.”
Macbeth refers to his mind as ‘full of scorpions’ because at this point in the piece he is experiencing many dark and evil thoughts. The scorpion metaphor illustrates that his mind is ‘full of poisonous insects’ that humans should FEAR and how this affects his train of thought and is making him react and perform acts of pure evil. This is also a benchmark for Macbeth’s mental state throughout the play and can be used to compare how his mental intentions and motives develop and change and the play evolves.
He also says that one of the main reasons why his mind is ‘full of scorpions’ is because Banquo and his son are still alive. This again proves that his evil motives are taking over his moral values. He feels although he can’t rest until the two of them are dead.
Scene 3
Characters: First murderer, Second murderer, Third murderer, Banquo,
Location: A wood just out of Macbeth’s castle (night)
Events: The three murderers hide in bushes, waiting for Banquo and his Son to pass through the woods on their horses. When they pass, the murderers light a torch and attacked them, bringing them off their horses and beating them. Banquo dies (‘with 20 gashes in the head’) but before he dies he tells fleance to RUN!!! The torch goes out and Fleance manages to escape. The murderers take Banquo’s body and leave the woods to tell Macbeth that the dead is done.
“O treachery! Fly, good Fleance, fly, fly, fly!
Thou may ’st revenge —O slave!”
Banquo pleading his son to run away and hide.
Sence 4
Characters: Macbeth, Lords, Lady Macbeth, First Murderer, Lennox, Ross,
Location: In the dining hall in Macbeth’s castle
Events: Lady Macbeth and Macbeth are hosting a feast to celebrate Macbeth becoming king. All the good lords and ladies of the land are expected to attend. They come into the hall and sit down to start the great feast. Macbeth and Lady Macbeth put on a happy face and try very hard to host their guest and not give off any kind of suspicion regarding the king’s death. Macbeth lies by saying he is disappointed that Banquo didn’t attend the feast (Macbeth killed him). As the feast begins the first murderer appears at the front doors covered in blood. Shocked that he would make such an appearance Macbeth quickly moves over to talk to him without the guest’s noticing. The murderer assures Macbeth that Banquo is killed, and tells him that his son fled. Macbeth is angered that Fleance wasn’t killed because this means he is not secure in his position as king – knowing that Banquo’s son will still become king after him. Macbeth returns to the feast. His guests ask him to sit down, but Macbeth doesn’t see any free seats. “The table is full,” he says. His guests say that there’s one free seat at the head of the table for him but FOR MACBETH that seat is taken by the ghost of Banquo!! Macbeth starts to go CRAZY and yells at the chair, saying crazy things. This worries Lady Macbeth because she doesn’t want him to accidentally spill any news about Duncan’s death. She apologizes to their guests and says that Macbeth often does this. Lady Macbeth has a word to Macbeth privately and tells him to snap out of it and become a man! The ghost disappears. Macbeth returns to the feast and apologizes for his actions. The ghost reappears and this time Macbeth is saying truly horrifying things. Without hesitation, Lady Macbeth asks all the guests to leave at once as the king and become ill.
Macbeth tells Lady Macbeth that he thinks more ‘bloody’ are to be done. He wonders why Macduff didn’t come to the feast. Macbeth says that he is going to the witches tomorrow to hear his future fate and understand what he needs to do next.
“Then comes my fit again. I had else been perfect,
Whole as the marble, founded as the rock,
As broad and general as the casing air.
But now I am cabined, cribbed, confined, bound in
To saucy doubts and fears.—But Banquo’s safe?”
Macbeth’s reaction to Fleance not being killed. He says that he had otherwise been perfect, everything he had done was thought through and things were starting to work out for him. But now that he failed to kill Fleance he is stuck and is being swarmed with doubts and fears about what is to come next! In the last line of this passage he says ‘but Banquo’s safe’. I think this line is interesting because he is asking the murderer if Banquo has been killed. Shakespeare changes the word killed to safe. This reflects Macbeth’s mind at the time and also how it is changing. At the beginning of the play, he is a soft character who we thought would never intentionally do something bad. The past events have changed Macbeth’s characteristics and because of this the term killed of death is now referred to as safe !!!
“It will have blood, they say. Blood will have blood.”
Macbeth worrying about the consequences that could follow his previous and future actions.
” I am in blood
Stepped in so far that, should I wade no more,
Returning were as tedious as go o’er.”
This is a VERY important quote as it illustrates a dramatic change in Macbeth’s head. In this passage, he is saying that he is so far in the blood (referring to the actions he has performed) that going back is just as far as continuing. He thinks…. well, I’ve gotten this far so I might as well continue. 
Scene 5
Characters: First Witch, Hecate
Location: The heath
Events: The witches meet up with Hate (the goddess and chief witch). She says that she is disappointed that they intervened with Macbeth without consulting her first. She tells them that she is now going to take control of Macbeth and informs them that when he comes to visit them tomorrow they will full him with a false sense of security and mess with his head.
“As by the strength of their illusion

Shall draw him on to his confusion.

He shall spurn fate, scorn death, and bear
His hopes ‘bove wisdom, grace, and fear.
And you all know, security
Is mortals’ chiefest enemy.”
In this passage, Hecate is saying that their next plan is to confuse Macbeth into thinking he is so powerful and has so much security that nothing can harm him. This is interesting because it introduces the idea that security is human’s worst enemy. This is Macbeth’s worse enemy and because of this Hecate and the other witches plan to give him a false sense of security to mess with him.
Scene 6
Character: Lennox, Lord,
Location: Somewhere in Scottland
Events: Lennox runs into a lord and they discuss the events that have happened to their kingdom. They talk about Banquo’s death and how everyone thinks his son Fleance killed him as he has now fled. Both men still suspect that Macbeth could have been the one that killed King Duncan and now possibly Banquo. The lord tells Lennox that Macduff has left for England where he will meet up with Malcolm to try and convince England that they need to help. Both Lennox and the lord hope that England can come and save Scottland from Macbeth!!
“May soon return to this our suffering country
Under a hand accursed!”
This quote proves that the people of Scottland are becoming cautious and suspicious of Macbeth and they are scared of what he might do next. They refer to Macbeth as a “tyrant” which means ‘a cruel or obbsessive ruler’.


MACBETH – Act 2 Summary

Scene 1

Characters: Banquo, Fleance, Macbeth

Location: A court within Macbeth’s castle

Events: Banquo + Fleance set the scene by saying it is past midnight. The three of them are having trouble sleeping, and then say goodnight to each other. Macbeth see’s a dagger and talks about his next action of killing Duncan.


“I dreamt last night of the three weird sisters:
To you they have showed some truth.” (Banquo) Banquo talks to Macbeth about seeing the witches. This is significant because it means more than one person (Macbeth) has seen the witches and heard their predictions.
“Is this a dagger which I see before me,
The handle toward my hand? Come, let me clutch thee.
I have thee not, and yet I see thee still.
Art thou not, fatal vision, sensible
To feeling as to sight? Or art thou but
A dagger of the mind, a false creation,
Proceeding from the heat-oppressèd brain?” (Macbeth  – soliloquy) This is the start of Macbeth’s in-depth and metaphor-rich soliloquy. He see’s a dagger hovering in the air. The handle is towards him, referring to him using it to kill Duncan instead of him being killed. He can’t hold it but he can see it, meaning it must a figure of his imagination (like a hallucination). He says “a dagger of the mind” meaning his thoughts are creating this dagger that only he can see. his brain is so full of thoughts about the murder he is about to do that it’s making him go crazy! If I was to direct this play I wouldn’t have a literal dagger hovering above him, because I think that the purpose of this soliloquy is for the audience to listen to his language and it emphasizes that fact that ONLY HE can see the dagger!
“Witchcraft celebrates
Pale Hecate’s offerings, and withered murder,
Alarumed by his sentinel, the wolf,
Whose howl’s his watch, thus with his stealthy pace,
With Tarquin’s ravishing strides, towards his design
Moves like a ghost.” (Macbeth – Soliloquy) Macbeth metaphorically refers to MURDER as a WOLF. and describes how he plans to murder Duncan like a wolf hunting his pray.
“I go, and it is done. The bell invites me.
Hear it not, Duncan, for it is a knell
That summons thee to heaven or to hell.” (Macbeth) Macbeth hears a bell and thinks of it as a signal that it is time to kill the king.
Scene 2
Characters: Lady Macbeth, Macbeth
Location: A hallway/courtyard in Macbeth’s castle
Events: Lady Macbeth is waiting for Macbeth in the courtyard after he set off to kill King Duncan. She thinks she hears a noise and when Macbeth comes back and tells her he has killed the king, they both agree that they heard a noise and that must mean someone is awake. Macbeth says he feels very ‘unholy’ and ‘sinful’ he can’t believe what he just did! But he made a mistake, he didn’t leave the daggers in the bedroom with the guards to stage they were responsible. He refuses to go back (which shows that he is scared and cowardly) so LadyMacbeth goes (proving that she is strong and determined).
“The sleeping and the dead
Are but as pictures. ‘Tis the eye of childhood
That fears a painted devil. ” (Lady Macbeth)
This quote proves that Lady Macbeth has very dark, deep and ‘male’ (of the time) thoughts. she is saying that sleeping Duncan and Dead Duncan look just the same, it’s only a coward who sees’s the difference and is afraid of that. When she says ‘the eye of childhood’ she is referring to Macbeth because he is weak and is demonstrating childish behavior in her eyes.
“Will all great Neptune’s ocean wash this blood
Clean from my hand? No, this my hand will rather
The multitudinous seas incarnadine,
Making the green one red.” (Macbeth)
Macbeth is saying that not even the greatest mass of water (the ocean) could not wash the blood from his hands. He says that there is so much blood on his hands that if he tried to wash his hands he would make the water red.
“My hands are of your color, but I shame
To wear a heart so white.” (Lady Macbeth)
Lady Macbeth is saying that her ‘hands’ referring to the deed they have just performed and the color of blood,  are the same as Macbeth’s but she refuses to feel bad or forgiving about it. She refuses to be a coward like Macbeth.
“To know my deed, ’twere best not know myself.” (Macbeth)
Macbeth is saying that when he thinks of the deed he has just done (killing the king) he doesn’t recognize himself and doesn’t like himself for doing it.
Scene 3
Characters: Porter, Macduff, Lenox, Macbeth, Lady Macbeth, Banquo, Donalbain, Malcolm
Location: A courtyard at Macbeth’s castle
Events: MORNING…..The guest’s in the house wakes up and the porter opens the gates to the castle. Macbeth shows Macduff where the king is sleeping and they find him dead in his bed and his guards holding bloody knife’s. They all react to the king dying and are very shocked. Macbeth and Lady Macbeth make up a cover story to how they ‘suppose’ Duncan was killed. Lady Macbeth faints and Malcolm and Donalbain plan to leave for England and Ireland to tell the office of this horrid news. Malcolm and Dolobain express their suspicion on whether it really was the guards that killed him!
“O gentle lady,
‘Tis not for you to hear what I can speak:
The repetition, in a woman’s ear,
Would murder as it fell.” (Macduff)
This quote is relevant because they are saying that Lady Macbeth can’t handle the news that Duncan is dead when she was the one who killed him!!!
Scene 4
Characters: Old man, Rosse, Macduff
Location: Outside the castle
Events: Rosse and the old man stand outside Macbeth’s castle and discuss the unnatural events that have lead to the king Duncan being killed. Macduff joins them and tells them that is it said Duncan’s son’s brided the bodyguards. He also tells them that Macbeth has already gone to Scone to be crowned as king.
“They were suborned.
Malcolm and Donalbain, the king’s two sons,
Are stol’n away and fled, which puts upon them
Suspicion of the deed.” (Macduff)
Saying that there is a suspicion that Duncan’s son’s paid the guards to kill the king. They think this is true because both brothers fled quickly when they heard the news.



Macbeth Language techniques

Point: During Lady Macbeth’s soliloquy (act 1, scene 5) Shakespeare, through the use of metaphors,  illustrates the power and pure evil she is inviting to help conduct her sinful plan. The use of metaphors is a frequently used language technique in many of Shakespeare’s plays as i gives the audience a strong understanding of the characters internal thoughts and also the reasoning behind their actions, to add to Shakespeare’s other language features.

Example: When Lady Macbeth is devising her nefarious plan of killing king Duncan she calls upon the evil spirits and asks them to remove the kindness and good in her feminine being and replace it with evil thoughts and strong will. Because of this she wants to shield herself from heavens eyes, she knows what she wants to do is bad. In the passage she says:

“Nor heaven peep through the blanket of the dark
To cry “Hold, hold!” (Lady M, Act 1, Scene 5)
Explanation: This metaphor validates the idea of Lady Macbeth’s plan being sinful and unjust for the time period Macbeth was set in. During the 11th century god’s, the powers that be, and heaven were very much believed and actions that opposed these beliefs were dangerous and frowned upon. People believed that these external powers dictated the unknown and also controlled who was in power (i.e kings, queens, ,status) . Lady Macbeth’s plan to murder king Duncan (treason) was one of the most dangerous forms of betrayal to these beliefs at the time and therefore (during this passage) she is asking heaven to not watch over her as she does the deed. She describes heaven as if it’s a child, scared to ‘peep through the blanket’ and see the dark. This metaphor portrays heaven as scared or afraid, and the ‘dark’ is Lady Macbeth’s plan. So she is describing heaven as scared of her plan or of what she is about to do. This tells us her plan would provoke the audience and make them feel uncomfortable, and nervous to see her plan unfold. When she states ‘to cry “hold, hold”‘ she is referring to her conscious stopping her from killing the king. She wants heaven to stay hidden from her evil thoughts and behaviour because she knows that heaven, god, and the powers that be,  wouldn’t approve. This metaphor clearly outlines how Lady Macbeth’s plan is ambitious, evil, and dangerous, because of how she feels about heaven watching her.