MACBETH – Act 1 summary

Scene 1

Characters : Three witches

Location : An open deserted space

Time: Unsure (some time before the battle?)

Events : Three witches stand around a steaming cauldron  and discuss when they are going to meet again.

Quotes: “fair is foul, and foul is fair”(all A1, S1)Paradox “When the hurly-burly’s done, when the battle’s lost and won” (Witch 2 A1, S1)Witch two is saying they will meet again when the noise of the battle is over and when one side has one and the other has lost

Scene 2

Characters: Duncan, Malcolm, Captain, Lenox, Rosse

Location: A camp near the battle grounds

Time: After the battle when Macbeth killed Macdonwald

Events: The battle has just come to an end and king Duncan is being informed on how the battle went down from his wounded captain. Ross tells the king that Macbeth was a courageous and valued fighter in the battle, and he killed their enemy Macdonwald. Ross also lets the king know they won the battle!

Quotes: “As two spent swimmers that do cling together, And choke their art.(Captain s2) this quote describes how the two enemies were neck in neck at the beginning of the battle and how it was hard to determine who would come out on top. “What he hath lost, noble Macbeth hath won.” (Duncan s2) Meaning the death of Macdonwald is Macbeth’s prize because i means he will become the thane of cawdor.


Scene 3

Character: 3 witches, Macbeth, Banquo, Rosse, Angus

Location: Upon the heath, the meeting place planned in scene 1

Events: The witches discuss their their plan to stop a sailor from completing his voyage because his wife has been rude to one of the witches. They then go on to talk about Macbeth’s future where they say he is going to become ‘the thane of cawdor’ and after that king. They are supposedly predicting the future. They also tell  Banquo his future will not be him being king but his descendants will be. Rosse and Angus inform Macbeth that in return to his bravery his is being crowned ‘thane of cawdor’, meaning the witches prediction was true. Macbeth presumes that the other predictions from the witches must also be true and starts to create a plan to kill the king (Duncan) so he can become king. Banquo warns the witches that Macbeth is turning evil because of their predictions.

Scene 4

Character: Ducan, Malcolm, Donalbain, lenox, Macbeth, Banquo,

Location: A room in the kings palace

Time: After the battle

Events: Duncan’s son Malcolm tells everyone that the execution of the former thane of cawdor has been done, and Duncan thanks Macbeth and Banquo for their job well done (killing him). Macbeth believes his actions will award him Duncan’s throne but Duncan awards him as the the new thane of cawdor and Duncan announces that the next king is to be his eldest son Malcolm. Macbeth is suprised and angered by this news, as he wants to be king.



“The prince of Cumberland! That is a step
On which I must fall down, or else o’erleap,
For in my way it lies. Stars, hide your fires;
Let not light see my black and deep desires.

The eye wink at the hand, yet let that be
Which the eye fears, when it is done, to see.

” (Macbeth)

Macbeth says this passage to himself and to the audience. This is an important aside because Macbeth is reacting to the king giving the thrown to his eldest son and not Macbeth.  He talks about the stars, heaven, god shielding or hiding and not watching his actions because he is about to bring out his dark side. When he references ‘eyes’ he is referring to himself and how he has self denial about his thoughts about killing the king.


Scene 5

Characters: Lady Macbeth, Macbeth

Location: A room in Macbeth’s castle

Events: Lady Macbeth reacts to a letter from Macbeth about what has happened and the witches predictions. She reflects on what Macbeth has said, and decides she needs to take action if her and Macbeth are to be king and queen. She thinks Macbeth is to weak and to kind to hurt anyone, so she is glad to hear that the king Duncan will be staying in their castle tonight, she plans to kill him. She asks the spirits to help her with this bad deed and when Macbeth enters tells him to leave it up to her.


Explore language techniques throughout lady Macbeth’s passage

Come, you spirits
That tend on mortal thoughts, unsex me here,
And fill me from the crown to the toe top-full
Of direst cruelty. Make thick my blood.
Stop up the access and passage to remorse,
That no compunctious visitings of nature
Shake my fell purpose, nor keep peace between
The effect and it! Come to my woman’s breasts,
And take my milk for gall, you murd’ring ministers,
Wherever in your sightless substances
You wait on nature’s mischief. Come, thick night,
And pall thee in the dunnest smoke of hell,
That my keen knife see not the wound it makes,
Nor heaven peep through the blanket of the dark
To cry “Hold, hold!”
(Lady Macbeth)
“It is too full o’ th’ milk of human kindness
To catch the nearest way: thou wouldst be great,
Art not without ambition, but without
The illness should attend it. What thou wouldst highly,”
(Lady macbeth) Lady Macbeth thinks Macbeth is to kind to kill someone, he is weak and she is not.
“Look like th’ innocent flower,
But be the serpent under ’t. ” (Lady Macbeth)
referencing how she wants Macbeth to be perceived on the outside and his thoughts on the inside.
“Come, you spirits
That tend on mortal thoughts, unsex me here” (Lady Macbeth) She asks the evil spirits to help her do this bad deed and asks to be stripped of her famine perceptions so she is not perceived as weak but strong and capable. 
“Only look up clear.
To alter favor ever is to fear.
Leave all the rest to me.”
(Lady Macbeth) Leave it to me and remain calm
Scene 6
Characters: Duncan, Banquo, Lady Macbeth
Location: Outside Macbeth’s castle
Events: King Duncan arrives to Macbeth’s castle and is welcomed by lady Macbeth. They enter the castle and Duncan admires it and thanks Lady Macbeth for letting him stay.
“See, see, our honored hostess!
The love that follows us sometime is our trouble,
Which still we thank as love.” (Duncan A1, S6)
Duncan is saying that the love of his subjects can sometimes trouble him or bring troublesome events, but never the less he excepts it as love anyway. This quote is important because he almost predicts that Lady Macbeth is putting on a ‘fake’ love when welcoming him into the castle because she has planned to kill him during his stay. 




We can determine the relationship between people through the language choices they make in the conversation.

Essay plan:

  1. Build context (to make intro more interesting) – How society has changed to back your hypothesis, How language has changed, how does the hypothesis  link to the world..NZ..Wanaka, use famous quotes that back your hypothesis.
  2. Persuasive / rhetorical language
  3. Select some interesting or intriguing results from your research .


The use of language allows us to express and convey information to each other. Over time the language we use and how we use it has been modified to fit how society has evolved. We can determine many elements of a person’s life experiences, emotional state, and connection to other people through their personal language choices. For the purpose of this study i have investigated how we can determine the relationship between people through the language choices they make in a conversation. This essay will prove how different relationships communicate differently with each other through the use of vocabulary, phonetic sound, linguistic language, and paralinguistic modifications. Also why we use language and how the reasoning behind conversations have changed over time, along with what has changed in society and the distinctive link between this and how we communicate with each other. All of these language features work together to create individual and unique language relationships between different people and determines how contrasting relationships communicate differently with each other.

Language over time – draft

Over time things change and evolve. Simple as that. Language is no exception to this, and as time goes on our language has modified to suit the way society are communicating at the present moment.  This effects how different relationships communicate with each other.

Body paragraph 1 – draft

Through the use of diverse language techniques the message being portrayed can mean very different things.  As humans we gravitate towards particular language techniques subconsciously , and this in turn creates our unique mannerisms and way of using language. Not two of use speak, deliver or communicate language in the same way, and this means every conversation we have with other people is different. It’s like the human mind. We all think and process information differently which gives us each personal strengths and weaknesses. When people collaborate on a project together they are utilising  everyone’s strengths to create an original and completely unique end result. This is just like our relationships with other people. We also adapt or modify the language we use to suit who we are talking to. This also makes for a unique language relationship. I mean think about it… Do you use the same language or communicate the same with your best friend AND your grandma?

Vocabulary is a language technique that gets over looked, however it plays a huge role in differentiating relationships.  When we speak we use different vocabulary as a way to express or convey a message in different ways. Depending on the words we use when delivering the message can determine how the person receiving the information processes it. An example of this is when your at an old friends house and you ask for the butter across the table at breakfast.  The vocabulary you use in this situation would be very different to how you would ask for the butter at home. This isn’t because your rude at home or you disrespect your family, it’s simply that different relationships make you speak in different ways. At your friends house your vocabulary would be something like “Excuse me, would you please pass me the butter…..thank you.” The vocabulary used in this spoken language is quite formal and gives the impression that your trying to be polite and impress your friend. On the other hand your vocabulary choices at home would probably be along the lines of “hey, will you pass me the butter….. thanks.” Even though your saying almost the exact same thing the mood and feeling around the vocabulary choices made really define the kind of relationship you have with the person your delivering your message to.






Text Transcript

Hey! (punctuation added for effect) The girls and i have organised to see pitch perfect 3 on the 1st of Jan .(logograms – shortened words) I’m about to book the tickets, do you wanna (merged words) come ?

Hey x (emoticons) what time is it?

It’s at 6

Yes sounds great xxx (emoticons) i was just checking the time cause (contractions) i’m working till (abbreviation) 3 but yes please xx 🙂 (emoticons) were u (logograms) at the lake today, i think i saw u (logograms) but i wasn’t sure? Xx(emoticons)

Ok great! (punctuation for effect) It’s  (abbreviation) going to be so much fun. I can’t wait!! (two exclamation marks for even more effect) Yes i was at the lake xx(emoticons)

Hehe (speech like interjections) yaaasss (repeated letters for emphasis) i’m soo (repeated letters for emphasis) excited xx (emoticons) haha (speech like interjection) i was going to say hi but it would’ve been awkward if it wasn’t you 🙂 🙂(emoticons)

Hahaha.(speech like interjection) Fair enough

:) (emoticons) k (logograms) gtg ttyl (acronyms) can you pls (contractions) txt (contractions) me when and where we r (logogram) going to meet if u (logogram) find out xx(emoticons)

Yes i will. See you soon xx(emoticons)

K (logogram) thanks bye (contractions) xx (contractions)


Sammy: yea (colloquium) we went to his office and there was like (none specific – broad/unsure response of how many were there) 12 of us

Zelda: really?(Shocked/inquisitive)

jaimee: what did you do though?

sammy: is was like,(verbal filler) kinda like (hedge – makes the point sound weak) one person who did all the talking

libby: who was it?

Zelda: haha (speech like interjection) everyone else was just backing them up

sammy: yea (colloquiums) it was ruby (No capital = less formal)

jaimee: ruby burke?(back-tracking)

sammy: yep,(colloquiums) and everyone else in there like hmmm (backchannelling) and she was like (verbal filler) talking and making her wee (slang) points

Zelda: yea,(colloquiums) do you reckon like (verbal filler) they will actually change anything.

sammy: i don’t know, because he was like (verbal filler) well… (ellipsis – emphasises pause) her classes got good grades, i was mmm (backchannelling – sassy) cause they went to kip

Everyone: hahahahahaha(speech like interjection)

Zelda: riiiiiiight (repeated letters for emphasis)

sammy: i know.

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